FLUORIDES and Global Warming
… SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that
it has evaluated, with a ‘g’ of 22,800 times that
of CO2 when compared over a 100-year period.
Plasma – the forth state, is not
part of climate modellers lexicon?
Last Update 27th. Feb. 2018
The Neutrino Flux from the Sun seems to
vary inversely with the sunspot number?
CO2-Climate Change / Global Warming Mantra:
WE HOPE THAT THIS WEB SITE WILL ALERT OUR READERS TO
SOME OF THE MANY OTHER FACTORS, RESEARCH PAPERS
AND OPINIONS IN THIS DEBATE
⇓ HERE ⇓
? Today, scientists are seeing the accomplishments of science demonized
and one of the three most important molecular substances that make life possible – atmospheric carbon dioxide (the other two being oxygen and water) – denigrated as an atmospheric “pollutant” in a widely circulated movie.
This and many other similar misguided propaganda efforts in the media, naturally repel men and women who know the truth. The search for truth is the essence of science. When science is misrepresented, scientists are naturally incensed. ?
Harold Warren Lewis, a respected physicist who had previously advised both the U.S. Government and the Pentagon on various matters including missile defence and nuclear winter, shocked his peers when he disseminated his letter of resignation from the American Physical Society. Lewis accused the American Physical Society of supporting “ the global warming scam, with the trillions of dollars driving it that has corrupted so many scientists. ”
HOWEVER THE GOOD NEWS: ⇒ HERE ⇐
Climate Action Commissioner Connie Hedegaard said:
” Today marks the beginning of the end for fluorinated gases in Europe.
Not only is this good for the climate, but also for the European industries
that will invest in more innovative, cleaner alternatives…”
⇓ ⇓ ⇓ NEW INFO ⇓ ⇓ ⇓
EPA – Sea level changes since 1880 ⇒ HERE
In the years 1421-22 the Chinese sailed around
the north and south poles, and though the
Northwest Passage, which was then ice-free.
They chiseled marks in the rocks on various headlands.
These marks are now below low water mark;
evidence of warmer times and oceans rising…
See original below. ⇓
ICE FREE NORTH WEST PASSAGE
This is significant because the
North-west passage in open ‘AGAIN’ !
See our site on ⇒ PRIMARY WATER
See also ⇒ NAUTICAPEDIA
Piers Corbyn “…We need a world campaign
to clear out the fraud and clean up science”.
More ⇒ HERE
Carbon dioxide is NOT a hazard, and to tax it makes no sense.
– It is a breath tax ! Here’s why our planet
our forests and our oceans all needs MORE CO2:⇓
Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)
is a non flammable greenhouse gas.
It has an atmospheric residence time ranging from 500
to several thousand years according to the
intergovernmental panel on climate change.
SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that it has evaluated, with a ‘g’ of 22,800 times that of CO2 when compared over a 100-year period. Measurements of SF6 show that its global average mixing ratio has increased by about 0.2ppt per year to over 7 ppt.
Sulfur hexafluoride is also extremely long-lived. It is inert in the troposphere and stratosphere and has an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 800–3200 years. (ozone depletion.) Atmospheric lifetime and GWP relative to CO2 at different time.
Geophysical Research Letters article:
“Ozone Depletion by Hydrofluorocarbons”
NASA Study Shows That Common Coolants Contribute
to Ozone Depletion:
⇒ HERE ⇐
By Staff Writers Norwich, UK (SPX) 16 March 2014 Scientists at the University of East Anglia have identified four new man-made gases in the atmosphere–all of which are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer.
New research published today in the journal Nature Geoscience reveals that more than 74,000 tonnes of three new chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and one new hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) have been released into the atmosphere.
Scientists made the discovery by comparing today’s air samples with air trapped in polar firn snow – which provides a century-old natural archive of the atmosphere. They also looked at air collected between 1978 and 2012 in unpolluted Tasmania. Measurements show that all four new gases have been released into the atmosphere recently – and that two are significantly accumulating. Emission increases of this scale have not been seen for any other CFCs since controls were introduced during the 1990s. But they are nowhere near peak CFC emissions of the 1980s which reached around a million tonnes a year. Lead researcher Dr Johannes Laube from UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences said: “Our research has shown four gases that were not around in the atmosphere at all until the 1960s which suggests they are man-made.”
“CFCs are the main cause of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. Laws to reduce and phase out CFCs came into force in 1989, followed by a total ban in 2010. This has resulted in successfully reducing the production of many of these compounds on a global scale. However, legislation loopholes still allow some usage for exempted purposes.
“The identification of these four NEW gases is very worrying as they will contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer. We don’t know where the new gases are being emitted from and this should be investigated. Possible sources include feedstock chemicals for insecticide production and solvents for cleaning electronic components.
“What’s more, the three CFCs are being destroyed very slowly in the atmosphere – so even if emissions were to stop immediately, they will still be around for many decades to come,” he added.
This research has been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), the European Union, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (Australia).
‘Newly detected ozone depleting substances in the atmosphere’ is published in the journal Nature Geoscience on Sunday, 9 March 2014.
Thank you C.R.I.R.O.
Full text ⇒ HERE ⇐
Notice all the F.s – Code for Fluoride ⇑
“RAAF previously used harmless environmentally friendly fermented
blood and bone, and liquorice to make fire fighting foam.
I know this, as I was there, and used it.” CHP
(RAAF Base Amberley Queensland 1960-1973)
See ABC TV ‘FOUR CORNERS’ October 2017
The ABC seems to be intimidated – it does no use the F. word (fluoride)?
EXTRACT: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), which can be collectively described as Kyoto Protocol synthetic GHGs (KP-SGGs). HFCs are used extensively in Australia, largely in air conditioning and refrigeration, initially as ‘ozone-friendly’ replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Minor uses of HFCs in Australia are as aerosol propellants, including metered dose inhalers (MDIs), as foam blowing agents and in fire extinguishers. PFCs are a by-product of the production of aluminium in Australia and overseas and, in addition, are used overseas in the electronics industry during the manufacture of integrated circuits and plasma screens. Refrigeration represents a very minor use of PFCs in Australia and overseas. Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in the electricity distribution industry, both in Australia and overseas, for dielectric insulation and current interruption in circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, and as a cover gas in metal production, for example magnesium. There does not appear to be any significant use of nitrogen trifluoride in Australia, which is used internationally in the semi-conductor production industry, initially as a replacement for PFCs.
Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) and trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (CF3SF5) are potent synthetic greenhouse gases that ARE NOT PART OF THE KYOTO PROTOCOL SUITE of SGGs (KP-SGGs). [ Our emphasis ] Sulfuryl fluoride use in Australia is growing rapidly, as a replacement for phosphine (PH3) and possibly methyl bromide (CH3Br), in grain fumigation. [*] It is unlikely that trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride is used in Australia. Its occurrence in the atmosphere is largely as a by-product of the production of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS: CF3(CF2)7SO3H), which has never been manufactured in Australia, but is a key ingredient in fabric stain repellants (e.g. 3M’s Scotchguard) …
[*] HOWEVER R744 (Co2) is a cleaner and safer option… Full text ⇒ HERE ⇓ see also below
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology ReviewsVolume 28, Issue 2, 2010
Abstract: Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is used primarily as a fumigant in replacement of methyl bromide, but it has the potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article introduces SO2F2 in the physicochemical properties, the current uses in agriculture and industry, the toxicological data, and the environmental implications on the basis of its environmental properties. The health hazards of SO2F2 and its probable decomposition products were also evaluated based on their occupational exposure limits and possible exposure sources. The resident and occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand seriousness of risk caused by SO2F2 and its decomposition products…
EXTRACT: Inorganic fluorides are used in Canada and emitted into the Canadian environment both from anthropogenic (estimated releases of approximately 23 500 tonnes/year) and natural sources (amounts released are not known). The main anthropogenic sources of inorganic fluorides in Canada include phosphate fertilizer production, chemical production, and aluminum smelting. Gaseous inorganic fluorides (e.g., hydrogen fluoride and sulphur hexafluoride) are primarily released into the atmosphere, whereas particulate compounds (e.g., sodium fluoride and calcium fluoride) are released into the aquatic and terrestrial environments.
Greenhouse gas Formula Gas Number 100 year GMP
The new Air Resources Board regulation
California Limits SF6
Environment News Service
? …In 1999, PG & E set a three-year goal of reducing annual SF6 emissions by 50 percent from a 1998 baseline and achieve this goal. Efforts to reduce SF6 emissions at PG & E resulted in the discovery that more equipment was leaking than the company previously thought… ?
THE NEW F. CONTAINING REFRIGERANT
[ ⇑ Notice all the F.s]
Also known as HFO-1234yf
HONEYWELL has hit back at a
German motoring magazine article describing its new
HFO-1234yf as a ” Killer Refrigerant.”
While car manufacturers around the world look set to standardise on 1234yf as the replacement for R134a in vehicle air conditioning systems, environmental groups and others in Germany continue to raise concerns over its flammability and the potential release of highly toxic hydrogen fluoride in the case of a fire.
Under the headline “The Killer Refrigerant”, influential German motoring magazine ‘Auto Bild’ describes HFO-1234yf as “Environmentally friendly, but dangerous”.
? …1234yf is yet another transitional refrigerant, 350 times less harmful than 134a, but not benign. CO2 or water as refrigerants are ideal as they are benign, and very cheap, it is just that they require expensive compressors (titanium, turbos, etc.). They are also said to be more efficient overall (they require higher compression but give even more cooling to more than make up for the extra compression energy used)
[The bad news for industry, is that CO2 and water are not able to be patented.]
⇒ Sanden Hot Water Heat Pump ⇐
and air conditioners use industry-leading technology
Ozone friendly refrigerant
R744 = (CO2) √
With the potential to knock out 1% of global greenhouse gases, the world’s automotive manufacturers are being urged to opt for the sustainable solution in “The Cool War” as they make their decision over which new refrigerant to adopt for mobile air conditioning in cars.
Leading science journal Nature Communications
has published an article on a “low-cost, highly energy-efficient”
aluminum battery developed by an international research
team led by National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU)
professor Chen Chia-chun (陳家俊), the university said yesterday.
— SULFURYL FLUORIDE v CO2 —
Sulfuryl Fluoride also a greenhouse gas, is about 4000-5000 times more
efficient in trapping infrared radiation (per kg) than CO2 (per kg).
Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) developed by the
Dow Chemical Company.
Sulfuryl fluorde is marketed as:
VIKANE, – PROFUME, – ZYTHOR – AND – MASTER FUME
— CFCS – CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS —
contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. The manufacture of these compounds has
been phased out by the Montreal Protocol, because they contribute to ozone depletion. However CFCs are still leaking from old refrigerators in land fill,
and it may be many years before this stops.
chemical formula CH4 also affects the degradation of the ozone layer —Methane in the Earth’s atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 25 compared to CO2 [Which is 1 (one)]
OXYGEN DEPLETION – AIRCRAFT
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming. Airplanes emit particles and gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, lead, and black carbon which interact among themselves and with the atmosphere. Despite emission reductions from automobiles and more fuel-efficient and less polluting turbofan and turboprop engines, the rapid growth of air travel in recent years contributes to an increase in total pollution. International aviation emissions have escaped international regulation. Apart from problems of emissions, aircraft consume huge quantities of oxygen which may be of more concern.
Southern California’s Aliso Canyon
PORTER RANCH METHANE GAS LEAK DISASTER aerial video this week showing the tremendous, continuous release of methane Los Angeles County will continue to live under a state of emergency
THE MASSIVE CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS LEAK NO ONE IS TALKING ABOUT
Though it seems to be oddly absent from the mainstream media headlines, a massive methane gas leak in Southern California’s Aliso Canyon has… read more
This is a good site, but not well informed on fluorides or termites
— SUNSPOTS & ‘HOCKEY STICKS‘ —
If you go back through time you will notice many
? Click to enlarge ?
FULL TEXT ? HERE
— SUN SPOTS —
Sun Spots are intense ‘bubbles’- storms of magnetic energy, (or is that plasma) larger than our Earth – (see image at the top of this page). These solar storms come in eleven-year cycles (average) and are recoded in sea coral, ice cores and tree growth rings. These organic records show many climate changes long before our industrial age… The solar cycle length may also be responsible for variation in temperature as well as the number of sunspots, which also can vary in size and number. The affects of pollution by humans and volcanoes will not be immediate and may be delayed for months or years, making it difficult to assign blame… With so much disagreement amongst the ‘experts’ we can only speculate. — Co2 is not evenly distributed in the Earth’s atmosphere, and therefor hard to ascertain percentages up or down. The ‘experts’ disagree amongst themselves, and seem to ignore other events in our solar system…
Volcanic activity, earthquakes, rainfall, power grids failures and civil unrest, increase at times of high sunspot activity. The earth and the rest of our solar system has just come through some of the lowest peaks for several thousand years hence the global heating, and droughts. – 91 Volcanos Under The Antarctic Ice.
— GLOBAL COOLING ? —
Millions of tones of fluorides, dusts and carbon dioxide are emitted from active volcanoes. The dust emissions circulating in the upper atmosphere reflect heat back into outer space, with a delay time of a few years, so we can expect more rain, earth cooling, and more earthquakes in the near future – not global warming. One year’s volcanic activity of one Indonesian volcano can discharge more carbon into the atmosphere, than we humans have throughout our history.
…Fluorides are so highly toxic that a single truckload of the industrial waste from the phosphate
fertilizer industry, used to fluoridate public drinking water, is sufficient to kill the whole Australian populace outright. The largest recorded knock down of humans, animals and crops by fluoride was the eruption of Lakagígar in Iceland over an eight-month period between 1783 and 1784, where a mixture of Hydrogen Fluoride and Sulphur Dioxide is estimated to have claimed up to 6 million lives directly or indirectly (through starvation due to loss of livestock and crops) in the Northern Hemisphere …
NEW – Sept. 2016
A promising new way of making high-efficiency
solar cells, using perovskites instead of silicon
— OIL, COAL AND URANIUM —
Burning coal, and oil results in pollution of the planet with mercury and
a list of other chemical contaminants to stress your dictionary and the alphabet.
Nuclear power is uneconomic if the full cost of mining and the long-term management of waste and the decommissioning of power stations are included, and is therefor NOT carbon neutral. Like fluoridation nuclear power is based on deceit and lies. Nuclear power plants are only possible due to funding of billions of government dollars.
In a ‘carbon economy’ the overall nuclear cycle – from mining, transporting and processing uranium ore, to disposing of radioactive waste and decommissioning power plants – generates CO2. which could be the same as from a gas-fired power station. Fast-breeder reactors would result in a plutonium economy with dangerous plutonium toxicity, nuclear weapons implications and global contamination for thousands of years. (CO2 is not poisonous in fact it is a plant food.) Nuclear power primary existence was to supply plutonium for bomb manufacture – not cheap electricity.
THE SECRET SHAM OF ‘PEAK OIL’
May be this is why Vladimir Putin is not popular in the ‘West’ .
Oil is NOT a fossil fuel. This is a theory put forth by 18th century scientists. Within 50 years, Germany and France’s scientists had attacked the theory of petroleum’s biological roots. In fact, oil is abiotic, not the product of long decayed biological matter. And oil, for better or for worse, is not a non-renewable resource. It, like coal, and natural gas, replenishes from sources within the mantle of earth.
This is the real and true science of oil.
Read all about it below. ⇓
OIL IS NOT A FOSSIL FUEL ⇐⇒ -It is renewable- ⇐⇒ Thomas Gold
The British scientist, Sir Fred Hoyle FRS said – “The suggestion that petroleum might have arisen from some transformation of squashed fish or biological detritus is surely the silliest notion to have been entertained by substantial numbers of persons over an extended period of time.”… ‘Big oil’ has a vested interest in pushing the idea that oil is scarce, hard to find, and thus costly to produce—all of which, of course, means increased revenues and profits.
NUCLEAR POWER IS NOT CLEAN OR GREEN – Even if coal, and oil, burning do not influence climate change, these activities need to be reduced and finally stopped due to the pollution they cause.
Clean thermonuclear alternatives may need to be pursued. [Helium3 ?]
The use of atomic power stations, ships and weapons is a continual threat to the health and survival of life on earth.
Hydrothermal electricity clean and green ? a short must watch …
Radioactive cesium jumps 9,000 percent in just three days
Dr. Helen Caldicott on Fukushima and
The Perils of Nuclear Power ?
Until recently, Japan was one of the world leaders in nuclear power, so such a shift is very significant, both culturally and economically. It has been revealed the central government did not let on to the public how damaging some of the possible scenarios may have been. About 10,000 spent fuel rods were being stored in pools of water near the damaged Fukushima reactor, and the government officials didn’t know if those fuel rods were in danger of releasing additional large amounts of radiation.
It took them a long time to check to see if the water levels in the pools were safe or unsafe, “We barely avoided the worst case scenario, though the public didn’t know it at the time,” Mr. Funabashi [said].
(Source: ETF Daily)
Read more: ??
The Japanese government announced Friday that it intends to stop using nuclear power by the 2030s. Many say this dramatic shift is the result of public concerns about safety following the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which experts have called
the worst nuclear crisis since Chernobyl ?
Japan Pulls the Plug on Nuclear Power ?
Nuclear experts warn flawed San Onofre plant too dangerous to start back up, but it may be restarted anyway
He is a former Australian diplomat and the brother of Helen Caldicott, the well-known anti-nuclear advocate. Fallout from Fukushima is partly an account of the trip Broinowski took shortly after the earthquake to interview locals, expats, academics and officials in Japan about their experience of the meltdown and their views on the future of nuclear power.
Source of Fukushima’s nagging radioactive leak finally discovered:
16 May 2014: – The source of the radioactive leak at the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was finally identified by the facility’s operator, TEPCO, to be in the primary containment vessel of reactor 3, authorities reported. In January, the crew of the plant first noticed that water was leaking through to the drain on the first level of the building housing the reactor. Engineers probed the space with a camera and found the water leakage to be near a pipe joint that connects directly to the containment vessel.
Credit: NaturalNews Monday, 21 July 2014 by: David Gutierrez, staff writer Tags: radiation, Fukushima, Tokyo In an essay addressed to his colleagues, Japanese doctor has explained why he recently moved away from Tokyo to restart his practice in western Japan:
He believes that Tokyo is no longer safe to inhabit due to radioactive contamination caused by the 11 March 2011, meltdowns at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. ??The essay, titled “Why did I leave Tokyo?” was published in the newsletter of the Association of Doctors in Kodaira, metropolitan Tokyo.?”Within the 23 districts of Metropolitan Tokyo, contamination in the east part is 1000-4000 Bq/kg [soil] and the west part is 300-1000 Bq/kg,” Dr. Mita wrote…
Full article HERE ?
A Time-Lapse Map of Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945 – by Isao Hashimoto
Do not watch before going to bed.
LEAKING NUCLEAR WASTE CONTAMINATING GROUND WATER
Credit Natural News “Hanford Determines Double-Shell Tank Leaked Waste From Inner Tank. This headline on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) press release from last October is bigger news than it first appeared. For the first time, the massive storage tanks built to hold some of the most radioactive nuclear waste in the world were found to be slowly leaking.
The United States campaign to build a giant arsenal of nuclear weapons during the Cold War created an environmental disaster at Hanford Site in Washington State. Highly radioactive sludge being leaked threatens to contaminate the region’s water supply.
In February, federal and state officials said six giant underground tanks holding a toxic brew of highly radioactive wastes are leaking at the 570-square-mile Hanford Reservation. The location of this nuclear waste site is right on the Columbia River in South Central Washington State. Dirtiest nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site
Hanford is known as the dirtiest reactor site in the world. It has 1,000 inactive dumps, 200 square miles of contaminated ground water, and 50,000 drums of plutonium wastes in temporary storage. For nearly 40 years, Hanford’s eight production reactors made plutonium for hydrogen bombs for the US Military. During that process, contractors dumped plutonium, cesium, technetium, tritium, strontium and other isotopes into the air, soil, and ground water. More astonishingly, they even dumped nuclear waste directly into the Columbia River – the drinking water source for downstream cities.
Hanford has 54 million gallons of the high-level waste liquids and sludge contained in 177 aged and decrepit storage tanks. Back in the 1980s, the DOE disclosed that up to 69 of the million-gallon tanks may be leaking. February’s disclosure makes 75; six are confirmed leaking.
The Human Fallout
In 1990, a DOE analysis of radiation exposures downwind from Hanford found that infants and children were heavily contaminated because of drinking contaminated milk. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project found that 13,500 people may have received doses over 33 rads of iodine-131 and that infants and children closest to Hanford could have consumed between 650 and 3,000 rads. A single rad can cause thyroid cancer and other illnesses.
Cancers, miscarriages and other health problems suffered by people in the area were linked to the deliberate spewing of 5,500 curies of radioactive iodine-131 to the atmosphere in a Dec. 3, 1949, experiment called “green run,” and on the offhand dispersal of 340,000 curies in 1945 alone.
Hanford’s latest six leaks are just a microcosm of the radiation leaked from the site which continues to leak deadly nuclear waste to the Columbia River resulting in a plague of cancer and disease that seems to have no end. What is Washington State doing about this? Washington Governor Jay Inslee and the U.S. Department of Energy are each looking for answers from a private company managing the most dangerous radioactive waste at the Hanford Site, where plutonium was made for the U.S. nuclear arsenal.
Inslee has asked his top Hanford adviser to begin inquiries into the situation with the leaking double-shell tank, a spokesperson for his office said.
Inslee said, “We’re going to be reviewing this. We know how diligent I want this state to be of having a zero tolerance policy … on leaking radioactivity. It is the right policy. It is demanding, but it is legally enforceable and we’re going to continue to insist on that policy.”
Inslee added: “We are going to be insistent that our federal partners be open and transparent with us to the extent humanly possible, that we are and will be reviewing what happened in this particular circumstance.”
Sources for this article include ? ?
About the author:
Chris Sumbs is a natural health activist and enjoys writing about the natural lifestyle and healing benefits of holistic remedies. Visit his website www.undergroundhealth.com for more great articles on these topics. You can also shop for thousands holistic remedies in the Underground Health Natural Health Store or visit the
GLOBAL COOLING – ICE AGES
Although this book is more concerned with global cooling, it covers many aspects of climate change. We therefore commend it to anyone looking for scientific info on a broad scale, – both in time and space.
?…Even if there is a slight global warming at present, it would be difficult to prove that this is caused by industrial atmospheric pollution.
Global climate is never stable in any case, and short-term oscillations of a few centigrade degrees are probably a perfectly normal feature of our environment. Other atmospheric changes have seriously been considered as factors in the waxing and waning of the world’s ice cover. The ozone composition of the upper atmosphere is thought to be affected by solar flares and also by industrial pollution, [fluorides] but it is not certain how much global cooling and warming can be accounted for by changes in the ozone layer. Volcanic eruption may also affect the climate, especially if there are many large-scale eruptions over a short space of time which add volcanic dust [and fluorides] to the atmosphere. However, it is now thought that the effects of volcanic eruptions are short-lived, and it has been demonstrated that volcanic dust seldom remains in suspension in the atmosphere for more than seven years after an eruption… ?
OTHER ISSUES DEALT WITH IN THIS BOOK INCLUDE:
— INTERNAL —
1 Variations in the Earth’s core – alterations in the output of heat from
radioactive materials [natural] inside the Earth.
2 Alterations in the direction and strength of the convection currents
which may exist within the Earth’s mantle. – geothermal heat flux.
3 Frequency of reversals of the Earth’s magnetic fields.
(Over 80 in the last 2,000 million years.)
— SOLAR —
4 Our sun is a slightly variable star.
Its energy is output is not a constant. – Opic.
5 There may be a ‘flickering’- on a timescale of the order of 250-300 million years.
6 Many periodicities have been recognized or assumed, ranging from millions of years? to less than a year.
7 Solar emission cycles with periods of between 200,00 and 400,000 years have received particular attention.
8 Sunspot cycles. [11 year average]
9 Precession of the equinoxes: 21,000 – 25,000 years
10 The obliquity of the Earth’s orbit: c. 41,000 years
11 The eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit: 90,000 – 100,000 years
— GALACTIC —
12 The Solar System moves up and down through the galactic plane.
13 The effects of interstellar dust veils.
14 Solar winds from other stars.
15 Changes in spin-rate of the Earth.
? Each of these factors might lead independently to small coolings and warmings of the global climate, but substantial climatic changes such as those involved in the initiation of an ice age can probably not occur until three factors are ‘favourable’ phased at the same time…?
It synchronous with the Little Ice Age in the Northern Hemisphere
“probably caused by a change in solar and volcanic forcing”…
Orsi, A.J., Cornuelle, B.D. and Severinghaus J.P. 2012.
Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica:
Evidence from borehole temperature at
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide.
Geophysical Research Letters 39: 10.1029/2012GL051260.
Editors comments ⇒ The Earth may be expanding ⇐
The Solar System is not stable.
? HERE ?
Hydrothermal vents exist at the ocean floor, 2100m (7000ft)
below the surface. They exist in many oceans around the
world, especially in the Pacific and Atlantic.
Hydrothermal electricity clean and green ? a short must watch …
– Helium-3 –
China, India and Russia are also space nations. China is planning to mine Helium-3 on the moon, where it is plentiful, for a future fusion economy. Fusion power (not radioactive) based on Helium-3 will give us all clean energy for thousands of years.
(Provided no one else is there first!)
– Thorium Reactors –
Thorium reactors COULD be a safer alternative than uranium, but this would not suit the military – (no bomb material) or the uranium industry, as it would give more nations access, to power, as thorium is more ubiquitous than uranium. Both India and China are researching this now. (Australia has the largest known deposits of Thorium in the world.)
More info on Thorium reactors ⇒ HERE
– Wind –
Japanese breakthrough will make wind power cheaper than nuclear power.
A surprising aerodynamic innovation in wind turbine design called the ‘wind lens’ could triple the output of a typical wind turbine, making it less costly than nuclear power.
NOTE: Some major wind projects like the proposed
TWE Carbon Valley project in Wyoming are already pricing in significantly lower than coal power – $80 per MWh for wind versus $90 per MWh for coal – and that is without government subsidies using today’s wind turbine technology.
Vertical-axis wind turbines potential sources of cheaper
electricity in urban & suburban areas, researchers discover.
DC wind turbines offer greater efficiency.
— NEW SOLAR CELLS + D C Wind Turbines —
The new efficient solar cells that respond to none visible light, (still work on cloudy days), optical double sided cells, DC wind turbines that can operate at any wind speed and do not require a gearbox. Peaking power plants and base load hydro-power from stored water pumped up behind dams by wind turbines, at off peak times, offer some cleaner options until we progress further with cold or hot fusion (helium 3), conversion of water into hydrogen, or the harnessing neutrinos, or whatever scientists discover in the future…
‘The Blue Economy’ as per Gunter Pauli,
is offering many other innovations of great merit.
Japan’s recent tragic nuclear experience may stimulate some new developments worldwide. However industrial corruption, electronic sabotage and debt banking in the USA will hinder these technical developments there and, its support for Israel with its endless Middle East wars will bleed the USA white, financially, thus reducing its research and development potential.
The myth of global warming, driven by massive well-financed media-protected propaganda, has persuaded many politicians and centers of learning that carbon dioxide (CO2) is a problem. But, as explained above,
The Theory of CO2 and Global Warming
May Be Seriously Flawed – Fluoride Pollution, Aircraft,
And External Cosmic Forces Are More Likely Explanations
“Global Dimming” … inhibition of photosynthesis and agricultural production.
Maybe that is why 31,487 scientists, including 9,029 with PhDs,
reject man-made global warming by carbon dioxide.
? http://www.petitionproject.org/ ?
See also the book ‘Heaven + Earth’ by Professor Ian Plimer
“I don’t pretend to understand the Universe —
it’s a great deal bigger than I am.”
Carlyle – in his Old Age
AS THE CLIMATE CHANGES, EITHER TO HOT OR COLD.
THESE COMMON SENSE RULES STILL APPLY :
1) Don’t build or live close to fault lines, volcanoes, on steep slopes, or close to water,
…..wharves being the exception.
2) Manage all human activities as sustainably as possible:
…..Clean Air, Clean Water, Clean Food, and Clean Fire (scrubbers on chimneys)
3) Stop weather modification and ⇒ GeoEngineering ⇐
More information is also available:
To receive weekly summaries of this new material posted on the NIPCC
(Non Governmental International Panel On Climate Change) website
(Not connected to us), ? click here.
NIPCC Project?Center for the Study of? Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
?P.O. Box 25697? Tempe, AZ 85285-5697?USANIPCC_contact “at” nipccreport.org
The Australian “Carbon Tax”
will WAS TO be paid in-part to the
United Nations World Government not by choice, – but by law.
In February 2011 Paul Murray from the WestAustralian reported that:
‘Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s new tax will be used to allow Australia to meet its share of a $100 billion-a-year United Nations fund to transfer wealth from rich countries to help undeveloped nations adapt to global warming. The Gillard Government is party to a UN agreement which Climate Change Minister Greg Combet entered into in December at a meeting in Cancun, Mexico, under which about 10 per cent of carbon taxes in developed nations will go into a Green Climate Fund.
? … They [Australians] do not want a carbon tax, not because they do not care about the environment but because they know that it will do nothing for the environment. They know that it will not lower global temperatures one jot or tittle. We absolutely know that and no-one has ever disputed it. They also know that billions of their dollars are going to be sent offshore to unaccountable regimes or organisations. You are going to see it go to an international United Nations fund and you are also going to have to buy permits from nations which have a less than rigorous reputation for financial transparency and honesty.
These are things that all concern us… ?
(SA, Liberal Party, Shadow Parliamentary Secretary Assisting the Leader of the Opposition). He makes no mention of other atmospheric pollutants,
– still he has got it right so far! )
‘MARINE SNOW’ – PART OF NATURES CARBON SEQUESTRATION –
… Because of the relatively long residence time of the ocean’s thermohaline circulation, carbon transported as marine snow into the deep ocean by the biological pump can remain out of contact with the atmosphere for more than 1000 years. That is, when the marine snow is finally decomposed to inorganic nutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide, these are effectively isolated from the surface ocean for relatively long time-scales related to oceancirculation. Consequently, enhancing the quantity of marine snow that reaches the deep ocean is the basis of several geoengineering schemes to enhance carbon sequestration by the ocean. Ocean nourishment and iron fertilisation seek to boost the production of organic material in the surface ocean, with a concomitant rise in marine snow reaching the deep ocean. As of yet, these efforts have not produced a sustainable fertilization that effectively transports carbon out of the system…
… The small percentage of material not consumed in shallower waters becomes incorporated into the muddy “ooze” blanketing the ocean floor, where it is further decomposed through biological activity. About three-quarters of the deep ocean floor is covered in this thick, smooth ooze. The ooze collects as much as six meters (20 feet) every million years. It is usually 289 meters (948 feet) thick, – but can be up to nearly 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) thick…
Credit NOAA – Wow, that IS a lot of carbon !
The Galileo Movement (non-profit)
Global warming stopped 16 years ago, reveals Met Office
report quietly released… and here is the chart to prove it:
The figures reveal that from the beginning of 1997 until August 2012
there was no discernible rise in aggregate global temperatures
This means that the ‘pause’ in global warming has now lasted for about
the same time as the previous period when temperatures rose, 1980 to 1996
By David Rose
PUBLISHED: 21:42 GMT, 13 October 2012 |
UPDATED: 13:59 GMT, 16 October 2012
The figures, which have triggered debate among climate scientists, reveal that from the beginning of 1997 until August 2012, there was no discernible rise in aggregate global temperatures.
This means that the ‘plateau’ or ‘pause’ in global warming has now lasted for about the same time as the previous period when temperatures rose, 1980 to 1996.
Before that, temperatures had been stable or declining for about 40 years.
Try not to get too hot under the collar about global warming!
See also – The Electric Universe