This research has been out of print for many years.
It was funded by The Queensland Government.

This information is relative to humans and is also
an explanation as to why Queensland under rural
governments would not entertain the idea of
adding fluorides to domestic water supplies.

Logo Qld Ag.Science ff

CHRONIC ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS OF MERINO
SHEEP IN QUEENSLAND
by
J. M. Harvey

image of sheep ss

— Original Queensland Government Research Documents —
These three booklets have implications for humans.
They are large files and may be a little slow to load.
They contain x-ray photos and maps. 

PLEASE CLICK ON TEXT BELOW FOR BOOKS:  (A),  (B), or (C)

  QJAS Vol 9 No 2 June 1952 @ 300dpi  (A)

  QJAS Vol 10 No2 June 1953 @ 300dpi (B)

  QJAS Vol 10 No3 Sept 1953 @ 300dpi (C)

We apologise that there is information on pigs in book (B) – Please ignore
We suggest you read the document ‘EXEGESIS’ below, or better still
have a hard copy on hand while reading the three books above.
See also newspaper cutting   HERE

Some Background Reading & Comments

Credit – CSIRO PUBLISHING

The 1945–1955 Queensland Artesian Fluoride Experience
A Unique Phenomenon Within The Australian Wool Industry
by
Harry F. Akers and Suzette A. T. Porter
School of Dentistry, University of Queensland,
Brisbane, Australia.
Extract from thirteen pages.

Conclusion: 

In the 1940s and 1950s, Queensland’s agricultural bureaucracy
instigated and supervised an investigation that was without precedent in
Australia in its rationale, geographical diversity, and commitment of
resources. Artesian fluoride had the potential to affect work practices,
land values, animal husbandry, and wool economics adversely.
As a result, the United Graziers’ Association, the Queensland Cabinet,
the state’s agricultural bureaucracy, veterinarians, and pastoralists
all viewed exposure of herds to fluoride as a serious and urgent issue.
The Department of Agriculture and Stock [now Primary Industries]
rapidly determined that there was no cure, but were able to manage
the problem by scientific investigation, methodical field study,
and the application of research findings to animal husbandry.



See original newspaper cutting  →
  HERE

—— EXEGESIS ——

The three documents above A, B, and C,
reveal the nature of fluoride and some of its
impacts on living tissue, both animal and human.

This research has been out of print for many years and was funded by The Queensland Government. It was undertaken without interference from multinational companies, and before artificial water fluoridation was under consideration. As can been seen on the charts, pages 11–16, in the first report, like India, China, Pakistan and much of the middle east, most of the artesian water in Queensland is not suitable for domestic use as it is high in fluorides. Although some of this water is very high in F, sheep do not live as long as humans, who will received a lesser dose under artificial water fluoridation but accumulating for 50 + years, and sheep unlike humans manufacture Vit.C .

Highlights relative extracts to humans
are presented below:
THE QUEENSLAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

Vol. 9.    – –    No. 2 JUNE,  1952

CHRONIC ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS OF MERINO SHEEP IN QUEENSLAND –

By J. M. HARVEY, M.Sc.,

Senior Chemist, Biochemical Section, Chemical Laboratory,
Division of Plant Industry.

The page numbers below are as per PDF listings

Page 11-16

Fluoride levels in Bores Throughout Queensland:

Page 21

… The possibility of fluorine excretion in milk of cows depastured in endemic areas of Queensland and confined to artesian water containing 7 p.p.m. F. was examined. The level of fluorine in the milk did not exceed 0.25 p.p.m …

Page 24

(1)   Ewes on water containing up to 10 p.p.m. F. and irrespective of the quality of pasture or ration, do not excrete an increased amount of fluorine in the milk…

Our Comment:
Breast milk in humans is also low in F. even if mother is on a high F. diet.
Nature protects its young from F. especially at the beginning of life
when the blood brain barrier is not yet well formed. ~

Page 29

It has been reported that an insufficient supply or an imbalance of other inorganic constituents of the feed has been observed to influence the toxicity of ingested fluorine, while the addition of extra calcium phosphate to the ration has been reported to reduce the toxicity of calcium fluoride for sheep (Velu, 1933).  Peirce  (1939 stated that the toxic effect of fluorine is seemingly enhanced in poorly nourished sheep…

Our Comment:

This is why people on poor diets are also at greater risk when
drinking fluoridated water, and/or living in F. air pollution environments…~

Page 47

(1) There is some accumulation of fluorine in the kidney and thyroid.

Our Comment:
Same as humans, F. is antagonistic to iodine. (India and China) ~

Page 50

(1)   All groups show a considerable fluorine concentration in bones and teeth as compared with that found in the normal control sheep.

Our Comment:
Same as humans ~

Page 77

These experimental findings support field experience, which suggests that the teeth lesions plus the accompanying pain prevent the sheep from collecting and mastication the feed. Thus the nutritional level is reduced and in its turn the yield of wool. Further field evidence lies in the fact that actual wool defects were not recorded in sheep in Queensland prior to 1941, when White, Moule, and Seddon looked for and found the dental lesions of fluorosis…

Upper and Lower Jaws of a Normal Animal
Abrasion of Molars and Premolars of Sheep Using Water Containing 5-7 p.p.m.
Fluorine and Depastured on Hard Mitchell Grass Country.
Note the compensating wear on the upper and lower molars and premolars.

Page 81  Fig. 86.

Three Examples of the Effect of Fluorine Intake Through
The Drinking Water on the Incisor Teeth of Sheep in Endemic Areas.

Left,          Teeth from and animal following irregular intake of
unsuitable water during its first year of life.

Centre,    Teeth from a 6-tooth sheep on unsuitable water from an early age.

Right,      Teeth from a sheep subjected to intermittent intake from
unsuitable water during its growing period.

Page 84

(6)      Teeth – Apart from the usual lesions associated with fluorosis, there are indications the fluorine in the drinking water delays the eruption of the incisors and produces badly deformed mouths. The elongation of the incisors and some abnormalities may be partly due to the type of feeding and mineral imbalance. There were, however, cases of delayed eruption and deformed mouths in groups 6 and 7, where the animals were on a balanced diet.

Our Comment:
Same as humans

In their paper entitled “The failure of fluoridation in the United Kingdom”, when discussing the final report of that U.K. Health Department study, Professor A. Schatz and Dr J.J. Martin stated in 1972:

“It is thus clear that fluoridation does not prevent or reduce tooth decay. Instead, it merely postpones the appearance of caries by about 1.2 years. Fluoridated children develop the same amount of tooth decay as their non-fluoridated counterparts The only difference is that caries starts developing approximately 1.2 years later in the fluoridated group.”

This delay, at least partly, could be due to the teeth of children in fluoridated areas erupting (breaking through the gums) at a slightly older age, and therefore being exposed to decay-producing factors for a shorter period… (as in Sheep) ~

Page 85

(7.)  Bones – The findings shown in the X-rays are not in keeping with those reported by other workers. All experimental groups showed rarification rather than thickening of the bones. This is particularly noticeable in the mandible, where the irregularities on the ventral border, formerly thought to be exostoses, have been shown to be due to a reduction in thickness of compact substance and the roots of the molars (and in some cases the premolars…

Page 89

(4.)  Pregnant ewes drinking water containing up to 10 p.p.m. F. do not transmit appreciable quantities of fluorine either to the foetus or to the lamb through the milk after birth. However, although this procedure is safe with regard to the lamb, field evidence does suggest lower lambing figures in such ewes. In addition, water containing 10 p.p.m. is certainly harmful to young breeding ewes.

Our Comment:

Breast milk in humans is also low in F. even if mother is on a high F. diet.  Nature protects its young from F. especially at the beginning of life when the blood brain barrier is not yet well formed.

Recent research suggests that the male of the species
may not be so productive in F. environments.~

Many people named and not named in the above research papers
deserve due acknowledgement, and so do the sheep
who gave their lives to this research.

Chairperson – Brisbane Anti-Fluoridation Association

 Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species, a small number of other mammalian species (notably guinea pigs and bats), a few species of birds, and some fish.

⇓  ⇓   ⇓   ⇓   ⇓   NOTE   ⇓   ⇓   ⇓   ⇓  ⇓

TESTING FLUORIDE AND OTHER DRUGS USING
RATS OR MICE WILL YIELD ERRONEOUS
RESULTS AS THESE ANIMALS WILL
MANUFACTURE MORE VITAMIN
‘C’ TO DETOXIFY

Laboratory guinea pigs cost more
to maintain because they need
fresh food containing vitamin C  

 Extract from:

9.3 Livestock drinking water guidelines 

Version — October 2000 page 9.3–1

9.3.1 Introduction

Livestock production in Australia and New Zealand relies on both surface water and groundwater supplies. Water quality in streams and dams (surface waters) is influenced by catchment geology, topography, soil type and climate. Groundwater, which is used as a source of drinking water for livestock over a large area of Australia (and in parts of New Zealand), may contain large quantities of dissolved salts, depending on the soil and parent rock of the surrounding area and many other factors including rainfall, evaporation, vegetation and topography. The quality of both groundwaters and surface waters may be affected by catchment land use practices, including agriculture, mining and other industries, with the potential for increased concentrations of salt, nutrients and other contaminants, such as pesticide residues and heavy metals.

Daily water intake varies widely among different forms of livestock and is also influenced by factors such as climate and the type of feed being consumed. Average and peak daily water requirements for a range of livestock are given in table 9.3.1.

9.3.5.9 Fluoride

Fluoride concentrations greater than 2 mg/L in drinking water for livestock may be hazardous to animal health. If livestock feed contains fluoride, the trigger value should be reduced to 1.0 mg/L. 

Source

Unpolluted surface waters generally contain low concentrations of fluoride but concentrations in groundwater may be higher in some areas. For example, groundwater at Carnarvon, Western Australia, contains fluoride at concentrations up to 5 mg/L (Hart 1974).

Groundwater fluoride concentrations >2 mg/L have been reported at several locations in Queensland, mainly in the Great Artesian Basin, with a few cases showing concentrations >10 mg/L fluoride (Gill 1986).

Animal health

Fluoride accumulates in bones rather than in soft tissue and excess uptake of fluoride can result in tooth damage to growing animals and bone lesions in older animals (Rose & Marier

1978, CPHA 1979). In Queensland, fluoride in drinking water for livestock at concentrations greater than 2 mg/L has been observed to affect the teeth of young animals (VIRASC 1980).

The diet may be another source of excessive ingestion of fluoride if the vegetation is contaminated by aerial deposition in industrial areas (NAS 1971), but no toxic effects were reported from dietary concentrations of 30–50 mg/kg for cattle, 70–100 mg/kg for sheep and pigs and 150–400 mg/kg for poultry. Van Hensburn and de Vos (1966) showed that levels of fluoride >5 mg/L in drinking water adversely affected breeding efficiency in cattle.

Moreover, Hibbs and Thilsted (1983) reported erosion of teeth at concentrations of 3.3 mg/L. Experiments with laying hens showed a significant reduction in egg production for hens receiving 6 and 20 mg/L sodium fluoride (2.7 and 9 mg/L fluoride) in their drinking water but that successful production could continue with concentrations up to 14 mg/L sodium fluoride (6.3 mg/L fluoride) (Coetzee et al. 1997).

The risk of fluorosis in either sheep or cattle may be avoided if sufficient water of low fluoride concentration (e.g. surface water) is available and paddocks arranged so that young stock have access only to fluoride-free water for the first three years of life. Where only limited quantities of low-fluoride water are available, the damage from fluorosis will be minimal if young stock are exposed to fluoride-enriched water for no more than three months at a time and then kept for at least three months on low-fluoride water. Control measures are less important in good seasons when stock receive the bulk of their fluid requirements from pasture.

Version — October 2000 page 9.3–21

The fluoride concentration in water is rapidly increased by evaporation. This is particularly evident in flowing bores where the water is reticulated through shallow bore drains. As a temporary measure while paddocks are being arranged so that young stock may be kept on low-fluoride water, it is important that the young stock should be watered as near to the bore head as possible.

Derivation of trigger value

The ANZECC (1992) guideline for fluoride has been retained in the absence of any new contradictory information. The trigger value of 2 mg/L is consistent with guidelines developed for fluoride in Canada (CCREM 1987) and South Africa, although the South African guidelines suggest that adverse effects are unlikely to occur in ruminants at concentrations less than 4 mg F/L (DWAF 1996b). 9.3.5.10 Iron…

 More Research Info On F. And Sheep:
Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. Vol. 16

THE BONE FLUORIDE OF EWES AND LAMBS IN N.S.W.
SALLY M. WHEELER* and ARNOLD D. TURNER*

http://www.livestocklibrary.com.au/bitstream/handle/1234/7816/Wheeler86.PDF?sequence=1

↓ see also:  ↓

BULLETIN NO. 121 Observations on the Toxicity of Fluorine for Sheepby A.W. Peirce. M.Sc.

Peirce, AW (CSIRO, 1954)

Three groups each of 16 mature sheep were allowed to graze on sown pasture for 26 months. One group was given reservoir water, containing approximately 0.3 p.p.m. F, to drink, but the other two groups were offered similar …

Wheeler, SM; Turner, AD (ASAP, 1986)Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. Vol. 16 THE BONE FLUORIDE OF EWES AND LAMBS IN N.S.W. SALLY M. WHEELER* and ARNOLD D. TURNER* SUMMARY Metatarsal bones of Border Leicester/Merino ewes (>4 y.o.) and lambs (~1 y.o.) were collected …

 Studies on fluorosis of sheep. 1. The toxicity of water-borne fluoride for sheep maintained in pens

Peirce, AW (CSIRO, 1952)

Five groups, each of six sheep, were fed in pens on an adequate diet of chaffed hay and crushed grain for 3

Studies on fluorosis of sheep. III. The toxicity of water-borne fluoride for the grazing sheep throughout its life 

Peirce, AW (CSIRO, 1959)

Three experimental groups of lambs were given water containing the same three different levels of fluorine, added as sodium fluoride, that their mothers had received during pregnancy and lactation. Group A (control), …

More info on F. and sheep from overseas,

Research report
  Fluoride 45(3 Pt 2)247–250 July-September 2012 

NITRIC OXIDE OXIDATION PRODUCTS AND THE ACTIVITIES OF CATALASE AND

CARBONIC ANHYDRASE IN SHEEP WITH FLUOROSIS

S Yılmaz,a F Yurb Van, Turkey

Most animals manufacture Vitamin C,
in their livers, which gives them some protection from fluoride damage. 

BUT HUMAN LIVERS DO NOT HAVE THIS FUNCTION.

On poor diets humans will therefore suffer more damage
than most animals even on lower doses.

      ❝…Vitamin C plays an important role in the orderly deposition of fluoride into various tissues. In higher fluoride areas, Vitamin C increases fluoride excretion and normalizes soft and hard tissue fluoride levels and thus prevents the development of fluorosis…”  Dr. John Yiamonyiannis 

  The Book Full Text  

‘Natural Fluoride’ – Calcium Fluoride CaF2
Is NOT Used To Artificially Fluoridate Water.
The chemicals mostly used to fluoridate drinking water are
waste products derived from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer.
Sodium Fluorosilicate – S6 and Fluorosilicic Acid – S7
Fluorine is the most reactive, electronegative element and it’s never
found in nature as fluorine. There are many kinds of fluorides.
Calcium fluoride can be found naturally in water,
 it is almost insoluble and can not be easily
absorbed by the body and therefor
not as harmful as Fluorosilicic acid.

 TYPICAL  ANALYSIS of FLUOROSILICIC ACID:

Nickel                   1742.  ppm
Aluminium               2.1 ppm
Cadmium                    4.  ppb
Arsenic                 4826.  ppb
Mercury                       5.  ppb
Chromium           3763.  ppb
Lead                           15.  ppb 

Fluoride is toxic and corrosive. It rates ‘four’ on a one to five
scale. 
More toxic than lead, slightly less toxic than arsenic.

While the uranium and radium in fluorosilicic acid are known
carcinogens, two other products of Uranium even more carcinogenic are:

Radon-222 and Polonium-210.
These are also present in Fluorosilicic Acid.

Editor’s comment:
   It looks like the animal sheep
   get a better deal than the human sheep!
   It may be better to get health advice from a vet,
   rather than a doctor on the matter of fluoridation.