FLUORIDES AND PLANTS.
“… If flood [or drip] irrigation is used,
[instead of overhead sprinklers] the plants
accumulate far less fluoride due to calcium
absorption in the soil, and the plant’s
discriminatory uptake through its roots…”
“Fluoride enters plants predominantly from
air through stomata on the leave surface, epidermis
and cuticle, and accumulate it in cell walls.
The fluoride accumulation by roots is
insignificant, although it is substantially elevated
after addition of phosphate fertilisers.”
Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a major phytotoxic pollutant.
SEE OUR LIST BELOW:
Alstroemeria, | Apricots, | Aspidistra spp., | Calathea and Maranta spp., | Chamaedorea elegans, | Chiorophytum comosum Spider Plant, | Citrus, | Cordyline terminalis Good Luck Plant, | Corn, | Daylilies (Hemerocallis), | Dracaena spp., | Gibasis pellucida Tahitian Bridal Veil, | Gladioli, | Grapes, | Howea forsterana, | Lilium spp., | lichens, | lichens (biomonitoring), | Maranta leuconeura Prayer Plant, | Maize | Olive trees, (1) (2) | Parlor Palm, | Peaches, | Petunias, | Pine Trees (some), | Roses, | Spathiphyllum spp ., | Tradescantia spp., | Tulips, | Yucca spp. | Horse Chestnuts, .More info → HERE & HERE
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association ⇓
Journal of the Air Pollution Control AssociationInjury by Sulfur Dioxide, Hydrogen Fluoride, & Chlorine As Observed & Reflected On Vegetation in the Field
Page 46 of 136
EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS
Plants are exposed to fluoride in the soil, and in the air as a result of volcanic activity, natural fires, wind-blown dusts, pesticides or as emissions from processes in which fluorine-containing materials are burned, manufactured, handled, or used (US NAS, 1971). The main route of entry of fluoride into animals is by ingestion, so plants are important vectors of this element in all ecosystems…
Some pine trees are very sensitive to fluorides and can be used as bio-indicators for air [and water] pollution. Some ferns and rain forest plants can show sensitivity to fluoride when watered on their foliage:
Fluoride-induced injury (air pollution) to coniferous forests can occur at a distance of 32 km from an emitting source, and total destruction of some species at 13 km distance. Fluorides are released into the air in both a gaseous state (as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride) and in solid particles. The particles fall on, and the gases are absorbed by, vegetation near the polluting industry [or volcano]. If this vegetation includes forage crops, which are fed to cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, or kangaroos. (The EPA says fluoride from Alcoa’s aluminium smelter at Portland [Victoria] is making kangaroos sick. 23 Feb. 2010), serious problems can ensue, since these animals, particularly cattle are vulnerable to fluoride. In fact, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Airborne fluorides have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant.” Huge compensation payments have been made, mostly as out of court settlements.
❝ The thing to note with plants is that plants will readily absorb fluorine that is sprayed [(irrigation,) or falls] on the leaves. If flood [or drip] irrigation is used, the plants accumulate far less fluoride due to calcium absorption in the soil and the plant’s discriminatory uptake through the roots ❞ – Dr. Miller.
⇓ Extract from research paper – full text ⇒ HERE
Q. If crops are grown where there is fluorine contamination do they take up the fluorine and pass the trouble on to somebody else ?
A. [R. Allcroft] No, it is not a case of passing it on to somebody else. It has been shown that most plants do not take up fluorine from the soil.
There are two exceptions: the tea plant and the camellia ♦ which appear to be fluorine collectors. Most grasses and root crops do not take it up from soils. It is mostly a question of contamination of the surface, therefor humans get off lightly because we do not eat grass. The inner parts of cabbages and similar crops are not high in fluorine, only the outer coverings which are removed.
Cereal grains are also quite safe… Ι—Ι ♦ See also ⇒ HERE
See more at the end of this Document ⇓
“…Air pollution damage to vegetation has been
recognized for more than 125 years…”
Recommended, very comprehensive!
We thank you for this large and comprehensive file ⇓
Fluoride is one of the most common airborne pollutants and its phytotoxicity is well known.
Major sources of ai¡borne F. pollution are brickworks, aluminium smelters and phosphate
fertiliser factories. Fluoride is also an impurity in phosphatic fertilisers (2-3Vo) and
this is the major source of F. contamination in agricultural soils. Until recently F.
added to the soil was considered to adsorb strongly to the soil and therefore
was unavailable to the plant. However, some recent studies in agricultural
and industrial situations have shown increases in water extractable
F. in soils, which could be potentially available to the plant.
Fluoride is considered one of the most
toxic inorganic pollutants
Mt. Etna – Fluorine Contamination
Damage To Vegetation
Fluoride damage from city tap water is best
avoided especially for rose buds.
Flowers should be placed in clean fluoride free water IMMEDIATELY after cutting.
Bougainvillea flowers will last in water if this is done,
[within seconds] and the ends of the stalks are smashed.
LICHENS – In the vicinity of an aluminum factory, lichens accumulated 400–600 μg F/g of dry weight (as compared to less than 10 μg/g in un- contaminated regions) .
The symptoms of toxic fluoride action include chlorosis, necrosis, weakening and loss of thalli binding to rocks and tree bark. The most sensitive to fluoride are fruticose lichens, whose survival decreased to 1% for 4 years of observations.
The majority of foliose lichen species also lost up to 88% of biomass, whereas crustose lichens were the most resistant to fluoride action and gradually occupied areas of dying lichens of other species.