Horses accumulate fluoride in bone less
readily than humans do during long-term
consumption for unexplained reasons.
[Horses manufacture their own Vit. C, which explains this.]

But horses cannot recover from bone breaks
as humans can.

The incidence of racehorse fatalities at two Southern California racetracks, before and after being provided fluorosilicic acid treated water supplies, correlated with fluoridated water consumption.


 It’s a tragedy for those who own these animals,
for those who love horses, and it gives a bad name
to racing. That’s why people who love the
sport of kings are so concerned!”

Richard Sauerheber Guest editorial

Fluoride 46(4)170–179
October-December 2013

Original text ⇒ HERE
Racehorse Exposure To Fluoridated Water – Sauerheber 

We present Extracts below:

Generally toxicologic tests for ingested substances exhibit wide biologicvariability even within one animal strain.

Administration of LD50 on tap acute oral doses cause 50% of animals to die but the remaining 50% are either sickened and recover or are often seemingly unaffected. Variation in genetic factors, hormonal and other traits also apply to low level chronic exposure and explain why artificially fluoridated water could contribute to breakdowns in a small fraction of the population while most horses performed normally. The lifetime accumulation of fluoride and silicate would affect all horses to a varying degree but the effects would be difficult to assess since speed and stamina decline naturally with age. The toxic effects of low level chronic exposure to chemicals in racehorses can be minimized with superior care such as providing sufficient dietary calcium, offering feed with drinking water, and pasturing horses frequently. Quality reverse osmosis de-fluoridated water equipment could be employed on site by owners a tracing venues. However, halting chemical infusions into water supplies is the best practice. Controlled trials in horses do not exist for long-term safety of ingested diluted fluorosilicic acid under various conditions of quartering. Racehorse health and performance affect attendance at tracks. The 75-year-old Hollywood Park is now closing due to insufficient attendance influenced in part by increased fatalities. Also since MWD water is being avoided as of 2012 at Los Alamitos, it may be considered that this particular fluoridation experiment has now concluded. Water districts infuse public supplies with materials to treat human caries, not horses. Topical fluoride is not used on horse teeth. The soft cementum layer covering teeth is synthesized by cells under the gum-line forming a smooth shape during circular chewing.


Halting fluoride infusions would not eliminate racehorse fatalities but could prevent many. Even in the absence of observed symptoms, all horses given fluoridated water have elevated blood fluoride contaminant levels and accumulate fluoride. Controlled studies in man indicate fluoride at dilute levels in water causes detectable adverse effects in only a small percentage of a population at first. The longer the exposure, and the more calcium-deficient the diet, the greater the effectand incidence.


 Although horses and man are biologically widely different, both are sensitive to industrial fluoride.


Horses accumulate fluoride in bone less readily than humans do during long-term consumption for unexplained reasons.

[Horses manufacture their own Vit. C, which explains this.]

But horses cannot recover from bone breaks as humans can. In the interest of health and welfare, it is prudent to follow Federal water laws designed to protect the natural chemistry of U.S. waterways. The FDA ruled that fluoride added into water is an uncontrolled use of an unapproved drug and that it is not a mineral nutrient. Whole body fluoridation is an improper procedure to treat caries. Ingested fluoride does not decrease caries after assimilation into the blood.


The FDA in 1966 banned the sale of fluoride intended to be ingested by pregnant women because of lack of positive effect on dental health in offspring

Therefore fluoridated water is unnecessary and affects horses without a purpose. Fluoride is an EPA regulated pollutant. As such, any facility requires a permit to discharge the material into public water supplies, as stipulated in the US CleanWater Act. An MWD attorney wrote the opinion that no permit is necessary since the industrial fluoride is not discharged into US water. However, fluoridated water is supplied not only to homes for private use but also to all public and agricultural water, which re-enters the local water table. Other districts label fluoride as a supplement, food, or drug without obtaining FDA approval. We must all honour the statutes in the CWA, the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act, and the US Safe DrinkingWater Act.


Analysis of data was conducted on the author’s personal time and does not necessarily reflect any institutional view.


Heartfelt thanks to Cathy Justus for reading the manuscript and for her blessing and suggestions. Also to the Del Mar Racing Office for their consideration, and to the Del Mar Turf Club for hiring me as a student at a time when breakdowns were nearly non-existent. Thanks to Dr Bettina Heinz (University of Frankfurt, currently Chemistry Department, Palomar College) for reading the manuscript.


This work is dedicated to the late Professor Emeritus Albert Burgstahler,
Editor-in-Chief of Fluoride, who asked that an editorial on fluoride exposure in race horses be written. He is sorely missed. His rigorous work on the toxicity of fluoridated water remains superior, and his assistance with the present article for the past year is greatly appreciated.

Richard D Sauerheber, PhDUniversity of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USASTAR Tutoring Center, Palomar Community College, San Marcos, CA 92069, USAE-mail:


1 California Horse Racing Board annual reports to the Governor; 2001-2012. Available News.
Study shows 5,000 racehorse deaths since 2003

 Associated Press; 2008. Available from: 3NY Times; 2013. Available from: examines-puzzling-trend-of-horses-sudden-deaths.html?_r=04NY Times; 2012. Available at: LS, Gilman A. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 5th ed. NY: MacMillan PublishingCo;1975. pp. 804-5. 6Doull J, Boekelheide K, Farishian BG, Isaacson RL, Klotz JB, Kumar JV, et al. Committee on Fluoridein Drinking Water, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division of Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies. Fluoride in Drinking Water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006. 7 Aiello SE, editor. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2012.8 Porter RS, editor. The Merck Manual. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co; 2012. 9 Susheela A, Mondal N, Rashmi, G, Kamla G, Brahmankar S, Bhasin S, Gupta G. Effective interventional approach to control anemia in pregnant women. Curr Science 2010;98(10):1320-30.


Guest editorial Fluoride 46(4)170–179October-December 2013 Racehorse Exposure to Fluoridated Water – Sauerheber 

Connett P, Beck J, Micklem HS. The case against fluoride: how hazardous waste ended up in our drinking water and the bad science and powerful politics that keep it there. White River Junction, VT:Chelsea Green Publishing; 2010.11El-Agamy DS, El-Labban NH, El-Kashef HA. Effect of fluoride on the respiratory system of rats. Journalof Basic and Applied Sciences 2006:2(1). 8 pages. [Published in collaboration with Lifescience Global]. Available from: B. Fluoride fatigue.


Revised 3rd printing. Dunedin, New Zealand:


Paua Press;


2008. Available from: Justus C, Krook LP. Allergy in horses from artificially fluoridated water. Fluoride 2006; 39(2) 89-94. 14Macicek P, Krook LP. Fluorosis in horses drinking artificially fluoridated water. Fluoride 2008; 41(3) 177-83.15Dwivedi S, Dey S. Fluoride concentrations in thoroughbred horses in India. Vet Hum Toxicol2002;44(5):292-293. Available from: See also: F toxicity. Available from: Manual for Pet Health;2013. Available from: GM, Sampaio FC, Pinto CS, Maria AG, Cardoso V, Buzalaf M. Pharmacokinetics of ingested fluoride: lack of effect of chemical compound.


 Arch Oral Biol 1988;53: 1037–41.19Southern Pines Equine Associates, N.C. and Wind in the Woods Farm, Auburn, OH. Available from: Gain Feeds 2012. Available from: GL. Incipient chronic fluoride intoxication from drinking water. II. Distinction between allergicreactions and drug intolerance. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immun 1966; 9(5):241-9.22 Petraborg HT. Hydrofluorosis in the fluoridated Milwaukee area. Fluoride 1977;10(4):165-9.23Grimbergen GW. A double blind test for determination of intolerance to fluoridated water (preliminary report). Fluoride 1974;


7(3):146-52.24Murray M, Stover, S. Silicosis associated osteoporosis. Available from: Merck Index. 12th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc.;1997.26Pollner F. Med World News 1989;30(17):14. 27Prystupa J. Fluorine: a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standardsfor exposure to fluorine and fluorides. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 2011; 21(2): 103–70 28Baud CA, Lagier R, Bouvin G, Biolla MA Value of the bone biopsy in the diagnosis of industrial fluorosis. Virchows Archiv A Pathol Anat Histol 1978;380:283-97.29UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Postmortem Examination Program 2012. Available from: 30New York Times. 2012 Mar 25. Available from: Alamitos Patch 2012. Available from: Food and Drug Administration. Available from: 33Forney B. Wedgewood Pharmacy, Swedesboro, NJ. Available from: center/professional-monographs/flunixin-meglumine-for-veterinary- use.html34Wikipedia.

Available from: E. Spotlight will be on dark side of California racing, again. Union Tribune San Diego. 2013 Apr 12; Sect. D:3 and 2013 Apr 13;Sect. D:9. 36 US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. Atlanta, GA:US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2003. Available from: 37Li Y, Berenji GR, Shaba WF, Tafti B, Yevdayev E, Dadparvar S. Association of vascular fluoride uptakewith vascular calcification and coronary artery disease. Nuc Med Comm January 2012;33(1): 14–20. Available from: Association_of_vascular_fluoride_uptake_with.3.aspx38Sauerheber R. Physiologic conditions affect the toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride. J Env PubHealth 2013. Article ID 439490, 13 pages. Available from: 39 Evidence based medical science used to end policy of fluoridation of drinking water in the Netherlands.Waugh D. Fluoride Free Water 2013 Jan 18. Available from: Recommendations Work Group. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and controldental caries in the United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep (Recommendations and Reports)2001 Aug 17;50 (RR14):1-42. Available from:


Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc. – – – Editorial Office: 727 Brighton Road, Ocean View, Dunedin 9035, New Zealand.


* A horse with a broken leg is usually killed because it’s very
difficult for the broken leg of a horse to heal correctly.

Also, because the blood circulation in a horse is
dependent on its hooves, keeping a horse
still for a long period
 of time in order for
its bone to heal is a huge risk to its life.


We thank you for your research.

See also ⇒ HERE