Community water, salt, milk, and dental products have been fluoridated in varying degrees for more than
60 y to prevent dental caries,
while fluoride supplementation has been recommended to
prevent bone fractures (Jones et al. 2005).
In addition, people may be exposed to fluoride through the consumption of naturally contaminated drinking water, dietary sources, dental products, and other sources…
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Morteza Bashash,1 Deena Thomas,2 Howard Hu,1 E. Angeles Martinez-Mier,3 Brisa N. Sanchez,2 Niladri Basu,4 Karen E. Peterson,2,5,6 Adrienne S. Ettinger,2 Robert Wright,7 Zhenzhen Zhang,2 Yun Liu,2 Lourdes Schnaas,8 Adriana Mercado-García,9 Martha María Téllez-Rojo,9 and Mauricio Hernández-Avila9
…Finally, our ability to extrapolate our results to how exposures may impact on the general population is limited given the lack of data on fluoride pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. There are no reference values for urinary fluoride in pregnant women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has not included fluoride as one of the population exposures measured in urine or blood samples in its nationally representative sampling…